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1. Early versions of UNIX were available only with a command-driven interface.
In more recent years, graphical user interfaces have become popular. Explain
in your own words why these GUIs made an impact on the popularity of this
operating system.

2. Assume that you are a systems administrator. Explain why you might want
to change the permissions on some of your directories to make them invisible
to users.

3. Administrators sometimes find that when they deploy Windows in
a multilingual environment, some languages require more hard-disk
storage space than others. Why might that be the case? Explain your answer
and give an example of one languages that could be expected to require
more space.

4. Windows features Kerberos authentication. Describe the role of the ticket
granting ticket to authenticate users for network access.

5. Identify at least five major types of threats to systems running Windows and
the policies that system administrators must take to protect the system from
unauthorized access. Compare the practical problems when balancing the need
for accessibility with the need to restrict access, and suggest the first action you
would take to secure a Windows computer or network if you managed one.

6. Examine the following list of permissions for four items included in a directory
listing. Identify if it is a file, directory, or other. Specify the access allowed to
three categories: world, user, and group. Identify any category of users who are
denied any access to all of these files.
a. -rwx—r-x
b. drwx—rwx
c. d–x—r-x
d. prwx——-

7. Linux uses an LRU algorithm to manage memory. Suppose there is another
page replacement algorithm called not frequently used (NFU) that gives
each page its own counter that is incremented with each clock cycle. In this
way, each counter tracks the frequency of page use, and the page with the
lowest counter is swapped out when paging is necessary. In your opinion,
how do these two algorithms (LRU and NFU) compare? Explain which
one would work best under normal use, and define how you perceive
“normal use.”

8. Compare and contrast Android and the Linux operating systems.

9. Compare and contrast the Android and Windows operating systems.

10. The role of the Linux kernel is crucial to the Android operating system.
Explain in your own words why this is so.

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