King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 406 : MANUFACTURING AND DESIGN

Fall 2013-2014(T 131)

TAKE HOME COURSE PROJECT /EXAM 2 Dr. Anwar K.Sheikh

Name ______________________ Student ID___________________

Section _____________________

Assigned on 5th December @ 1 PM Due on 15th December , 2014 before 4 PM

Delivered in all of three folloeing Formats before scheduled time .

1- Exam Solution on Exam paper All typed version by Email on Web CT including Additional Folder showing all detailed caclulations ,Statgraphics output and Spread sheet analysis files

2- Contents send by Email must be printed as hard copy and a spiral bound copy should be given to Me.before scedukle time.

3. All contenes of 1item one be copied on A CD and a CD with student Name and ID and Project ?EXAM 2 written on it .

Open Book/Open Notes

Problem # Marks Grade

1 1.5

2 1.5

3 1

4 1

5 3

6 2

7 2

8 2

9 4

10 2

Total 20

This exam contains sisteen (16) sheets ,plus question 6 statement in separate word file and three Excel attach,ent .including the Cover Page.The formulae sheet is given seperatly.

Problem # 1 [1.5 Point ]

Compare disposable and regrindable tooling. The same grade of cemented carbide tooling is available in two forms for turning operations in a certain machine shop: disposable inserts and brazed inserts. The parameters in the Taylor equation for this grade are: n = 0.25 and C = 300 (m/min) under the cutting conditions considered here. For the disposable inserts, price of each insert = $6.00, there are four cutting edges per insert, and the tool change time = 1.0 min (this is an average of the time to index the insert and the time to replace it when all edges have been used). For the brazed insert, the price of the tool = $30.00 and it is estimated that it can be used a total of 15 times before it must be scrapped. The tool change time for the regrindable tooling = 3.0 min. The standard time to grind or regrind the cutting edge is 5.0 min, and the grinder is paid at a rate = $20.00/hr. Machine time on the lathe costs $24.00/hr. The workpart to be used in the comparison is 375 mm long and 62.5 mm in diameter, and it takes 2.0 min to load and unload the work. The feed = 0.30 mm/rev. For the two tooling cases, compare: (a) cutting speeds for minimum cost, (b) tool lives, (c) cycle time and cost per unit of production. Which tool would you recommend?

Problem # 2 [1.5 Point]

A vertical boring mill is used to bore the inside diameter of a large batch of tube-shaped parts. The diameter = 28.0 in and the length of the bore = 14.0 in. Current cutting conditions are: speed = 200 ft/min, feed = 0.015 in/rev, and depth = 0.125 in. The parameters of the Taylor equation for the cutting tool in the operation are: n = 0.23 and C = 850 (ft/min). Tool change time = 3.0 min, and tooling cost = $3.50 per cutting edge. The time required to load and unload the parts = 12.0 min, and the cost of machine time on this boring mill = $42.00/hr. Management has decreed that the production rate must be increased by 25%. Is that possible? Assume that feed must remain unchanged in order to achieve the required surface finish. What is the current production rate and the maximum possible production rate for this job?

Problem # 3 [1. Point]

It is desired to compare the cycle times required to grind a particular workpiece using traditional surface grinding and using creep feed grinding. The workpiece is 200 mm long, 30 mm wide, and 75 mm thick. To make a fair comparison, the grinding wheel in both cases is 250 mm in diameter,35 mm in width, and rotates at 1500 rev/min. It is desired to remove 25 mm of material from the surface. When traditional grinding is used, the infeed is set at 0.025 mm, and the wheel traverses twice (forward and back) across the work surface during each pass before resetting the infeed.

There is no cross-feed since the wheel width is greater than the work width. Each pass is made at a work speed of 12 m/min, but the wheel overshoots the part on both sides. With acceleration and deceleration, the wheel is engaged in the work for 50% of the time on each pass. When creep feed grinding is used, the depth is increased by 1000 and the forward feed is decreased by 1000.

How long will it take to complete the grinding operation (a) with traditional grinding and (b) with creep feed grinding?

Problem # 4 [1 Point]

In a certain grinding operation, the grade of the grinding wheel should be “M” (medium), but the only available wheel is grade “T” (hard). It is desired to make the wheel appear softer by making changes in cutting conditions. What changes would you recommend?

Problem # 5 [3 Point]-Design

Consider Following part (flange) to be made of copper.

Nomenclature

OD=Outer Diameter,mm

TOD = tolerance for Outer diameter, ,mm

ID=Inner Diameter,mm

TOD = tolerance for Inner diameter,mm

SID= Surface Finish of Internal diameter . μm Ra

Similarly for SFU , FT , FTH etc.,

Assume OD= 100 ± 1 mm ,

ID= 60 ± 0.05 mm ,

FH=20 ± 1 mm ,

FT=5 ± 1 mm ,

CD= 70 ± 1 mm ,

SID= SFD= 0.8. μm Ra

All other surfaces undefined.

Design for Casting

If ten flanges are to be made from copper with dimensions as shown.Evaluate its feasibilty of manufacturinhg using all casting processes and come up with ur recommendatioon of best casting process.All casting processes needs to be explored and only most feasible one should be kept. Give very brief justificatiob not more than one typed line to keep a process and to reject a process .

Use Solidworks to make the drawing with showing all dimensions on the drawing (Part drawing ainilar to drawing Given) , and 3D soild model of the the above part design. Cut Paste both Images below and seperately provide your solid works files in Accopanying Folder. .

Design for Casting

Ten flanges are to be made from copper with dimensions as shown in the drawing by a suitable casting process. Evaluate its feasibility of manufacturing using all casting processes and come up with your recommendation of the best casting process. All casting processes needs to be explored, and only most feasible one should be kept. Give a very brief justification (not more than one or two typed lines) of keeping a process or rejecting a process.

Use Solid works to make the drawing with showing all dimensions on the drawing (Part drawing similar to drawing given) and 3D solid model of the above part design. Cut Paste both Images below and separately provide your solid works files in Accompanying Folder.

Convert this design (drawing) to design which can be conveniently manufactured in view of the best design practices of casting process being use. That is, add proper allowances, tapers and other features improvement if needed to make a suitable mold for casting (You do not design mold). Both modified sketches as adjusted in 2D drawing and its counterpart representation in 3D Model need to be cut and paste in space below, and separately provide your solid works files in Accompanying Folder.

Design for Powder Metallurgy

Now assume 10000 such parts (Flanges are to be made by Powder Metallurgy Technique, and the dimensions given in the problem statement is the dimensions after sintering).

-Using all design guidelines of making powder metallurgy parts starting from fine copper powder, provides a schematic view of a double acting (two punch die to make this part ).

-calculate various dimensions of the part when a 5 % linear shrinkage occurs when green part is sintered. The green product is compacted to have 95 % of theoretical (bulk) density of copper. Using various charts (Figures) and (Tables) (please refer those tables and charts here and show all your calculations and formulae used). Determine, that what will be the

(a) compacting pressure

(b) tensile strength of the flange

(c) initial volume of the powder

(d) conceptual design of Powder Metallurgy Compaction die, and punches.(Good sketch free hand sketch scanned image or computer drawn free hand sketch is sufficient -fully dimensioned drawing is not necessary)

(e) Comments on possible difficulties in making this part and suggest remedies. Use knowledge of design aspects of PM parts and process.

Problem # 6 [2 Point]-Process Capability Analysis Problem –Statistics in Manufacturing

See Separate Problem 5 and for Data see Attachment 1 Excel Files

Problem # 7 [2 Point] – Statistical Quality Control

7.1-Calculate X and R and the control limits for the X and R control charts shown in figure A. The sample mean, X and range for the first nine subgroups and the data for each sample are given in the bottom of the figure. There are 25 samples of size 4. Therefore M=25, n=4. Complete the bottom part of the table and then compute the control limits for both charts. Construct the charts plotting X and R bar as solid lines and control limits as dashed lines. The first four data points have been plotted and the points connected, but are they all correctly plotted? Replot fresh any points that are incorrectly plotted. Plot the rest of the data (Plot complete data using Excel or Statgraphics Module on Quality Control on a separate graph) on the charts and comment on your findings.

7.2 For the data given in Figure A, estimate the mean and standard deviation for the process from which these samples were drawn (i.e. parent population) and discuss the process capabilities in terms of Cp, Cpk and D. The USL and LSL for these dimensions are 0.9 and 0.5, respectively, and the nominal is 0.7.

Problems # 8 [2 Point] – Statistical Quality Control

Figure B contains data from the process that produces holes (drilling) with the limit of 6 to 6.7mm. The control charts for X and R using n=5 and M=25 as shown in figure, also. (Note: The numbers in the body of the table are 6.47, 6.19, 6.19, 6.29, etc.)

a) Using the data for n=5 and M=25, develop the process capabilities indexes Cp and Cpk, and discuss the capabilities of the process.

b) Using the data n=5 and k=25, develop the Ϭ control chart and use Ϭ to estimate ϬI for the process capability indexes Cp and Cpk.

c) DevelopX , R and Ϭ charts for sample sizes 4 or 3 by ignoring X5 or X3 and X5 (or any combination of individual values). (Plot desired charts using Excel or Statgraphics Module on Quality Control on a separate graph).Use the charts to perform a process capability study.

Problem # 9 [4 Point]-Statistics in Manufacturing –Multiple Regression and Empirical Models

9.1. Regression Analysis and Empirical Model Development of Cutting Forces in Turning and Cutting Variables , and interpretation of complete regression analysis results Using STATGRAPHICS

Table Data generated in Turning Forces Measurement Experiment in your ME407 lab. -For Complete Data Files see seperately sent Excel Data files Attachment 2

Table 1 Data Sheet Turning Process

Work piece Material : Mild Steel Cutting Tool Material : Tungusun Carbide Machine Tool Name : Lathe Machine

Material Specific Energy : Mild Steel Tool side Rake Angle : 5 Machine Tool HP : 10 HP

Using coolant : No

Expt. No workpiece dia N (rpm) cutting speed Machine Feed Rate Depth of cut Chip Thickness axial OR thrust force tangential OR cutting force

D (mm) v (m/s) f (mm/rev) d (mm) tc (mm) Fx = Ft (N) Fz = Fc (N)

1 63.85 135 0.451387575 0.3 1 0.81 129.4 393.9

2 63.85 185 0.618568158 0.3 1 0.58 110.61 351.9

3 63.85 245 0.819184858 0.3 1 0.48 95.58 311.34

4 63.85 330 1.10339185 0.3 1 0.43 101.56 312.79

5 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 1 0.31 111.75 320.43

6 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.1 1 0.14 47.46 115.91

7 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.2 1 0.2 87.26 220.78

8 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 1 0.32 112.47 322.12

9 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.4 1 0.43 136.8 406.36

10 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.5 1 0.76 129.3 473.38

11 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 0.6 0.25 46.92 177.03

12 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 0.8 0.31 73.82 236.22

13 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 1 0.37 113.23 307.64

14 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 1.2 0.5 158.31 402.48

15 63.85 450 1.50462525 0.3 1.4 0.77 189.9 452.63

Perform A multiple Linear regression on data generated in Turning Forces Measurement Experiment in your ME407 lab.

Explore the validity of the following Models

as Cutting Force FZ=KVa fb d c

and Thrust Force Fx=AVd fe d g

by taking logrithmic trasnformation of proposed model (Y= α0 + α1X1+ α2X2+ α3X3 )

ln FZ= ln K+a ln V+b ln f + c ln d

ln Fx= ln A+d ln V+e ln f + g ln d

, and using Statgraphics regression module (under relate ). Find K ,A , a,b,c,d,e,g for the model , add two more columns of predictions using the fitted column adajacent to Forcesc measurement column.

When windows ask what output you want in tabulated and grahical form select ALL, and generate complete report (which should be \given in Accompanying Folder)

Cut and paste all statgraphics output (Tables and graphs) below and comment and explain various values reported in the output table and explain each graph what it reprent.

Is the proposed model a good model or you will suggest some improvement in the model.

9.2.

Reghression Analysis and Empirical Model Development of Cutting Forces (Thrust Force and Moment) in Drilling and Cutting Variables , and interpretation of complete regression analysis results Using STATGRAPHICS

Table Cutting Force and Moment (Torque) Data generated in Drilling Experiment in ME407 Lab-For Complete Data Files see seperately sent Excel Data files Attachment 3

Table 2 Data Sheet Drilling Process

Work piece Material : Mild Steel Cutting Tool Material : HSS Machine Tool Name : Radial Drill Press

Material Specific Energy : Mild Steel Cutting Edge Angle : 118 Machine Tool HP : 2.2 kw = 2.95 HP

Using coolant : No

Expt. No Drill Dia (inches), d N (rpm) V (m/min.) Feed Rate (mm/min) Feed Rate f (mm/rev) ,f Thrust Force FZ = Ft (N) Torque MZ = M (N.m) Actual Time (s)

1 0.375 355 10.62428025 3 0.03 342.5 1.875 20.8

2 0.375 355 10.62428025 5 0.05 521.2 3.55 20.9

3 0.375 355 10.62428025 9 0.08 424 4.53 21.3

4 0.375 355 10.62428025 10 0.12 1.125 7.224 19

5 0.375 355 10.62428025 12 0.2 77.11 9.43 15.5

6 0.375 355 10.62428025 14 0.31 1.702 17.47 10.1

7 0.375 90 2.6934795 5 0.12 2.509 5.658 20.2

8 0.375 140 4.189857 5 0.12 2.533 8.245 20.5

9 0.375 224 6.7037712 5 0.12 2.274 9.422 20.9

10 0.375 355 10.62428025 5 0.12 77.11 9.43 15.5

11 0.375 450 13.4673975 5 0.12 1.499 8.7 20.4

12 0.375 560 16.759428 5 0.12 1.732 8.628 15.2

13 0.19 355 5.312140125 5 0.12 907 2.801 20

14 0.25 355 7.0828535 5 0.12 426.9 3.539 20.6

15 0.38 355 10.62428025 5 0.12 77.11 9.43 15.5

16 0.44 355 12.39499363 5 0.12 2.615 14.44 21

17 0.63 355 17.70713375 5 0.12 1.737 12.92 20.5

18 0.50 355 14.165707 5 0.12 1.391 14.56 20

Perform A multiple Linear regression on data generated in Drilling Forces (Thrust Force and Moment) Measurement Experiment in your ME407 lab.

Explore the validity of the following Models (d= diameter in mm , f= frrd in mm/rev , and V cutting Velocity in m/minutes )

as Moment MZ=KVa fb d c

and Thrust Force Fz=AVd fe d g

by taking logrithmic trasnformation of proposed model (Y= α0 + α1X1+ α2X2+ α3X3 )

ln MZ = ln K+a ln V+b ln f + c ln d

ln Fz= ln A+d ln V+e ln f + g ln d

, and using Statgraphics regression module (under relate ). Find K ,A , a,b,c,d,e,g for the model , add two more columns of predictions using the fitted column adajacent to Forcesc measurement column.

When windows ask what output you want in tabulated and grahical form select ALL, and generate complete report (which should be \given in Accompanying Folder)

Cut and paste all statgraphics output (Tables and graphs) below and comment and explain various values reported in the output table and explain each graph what it reprent.

Is the proposed model a good model or you will suggest some improvement in the model.

Problem #10- ( this is problem number 6-44 from Statistics Book by Montegpmery whose e book version is provide to you). Regression Models and results interpretation (Use Statgraphics Regression Modele to develop solution) (2 poits)

The data that follow are DC output from a windmill (y) and wind velocity (x).

(a) Draw a scatter diagram of these data. What type of relationship seems appropriate in relating y to x?

(b) Fit a simple linear regression model to these data.

(c) Test for significance of regression using _ _ 0.05. What conclusions can you draw?

(d) Plot the residuals from the simple linear regression model versus and versus wind velocity x. What do you conclude about model adequacy?

(e) Based on the analysis, propose another model relating y to x. Justify why this model seems reasonable.

(f) Fit the regression model you have proposed in part (e).Test for significance of regression (use _ _ 0.05), and graphically analyze the residuals from this model. What can you conclude about model adequacy?

Observation Wind Velocity DC Output

Number (MPH), xi yi

1 5.00 1.582

2 6.00 1.822

3 3.40 1.057

4 2.70 0.500

5 10.00 2.236

6 9.70 2.386

7 9.55 2.294

8 3.05 0.558

9 8.15 2.166

10 6.20 1.866

11 2.90 0.653

12 6.35 1.930

13 4.60 1.562

14 5.80 1.737

15 7.40 2.088

16 3.60 1.137

17 7.85 2.179

18 8.80 2.112

19 7.00 1.800

20 5.45 1.501

21 9.10 2.303

22 10.20 2.310

23 4.10 1.194

24 3.95 1.144

25 2.45 0.123